Nighttime asthma symptoms can cause children and their parents or caregivers to lose sleep. Children with uncontrolled asthma may wake up at night with a cough that keeps them and their parents awake. Even in children with controlled asthma, 30 percent to 70 percent will have symptoms during the night at least once a month. Fortunately, there are things you can do that can help prevent these nighttime awakenings.
Compared to children without asthma, children with asthma typically:
Children who don’t get enough sleep can have daytime sleepiness, a hard time regulating their emotions, difficulty in school, and a decreased quality of life. Lack of sleep can also worsen symptoms because asthma is associated with a circadian pattern of lung function. Uncontrolled asthma can then increase how often your child wakes up during the night. The result is a worsening feedback cycle with more problems in daytime functioning and asthma symptoms.
When children have trouble sleeping, it often means parents or caregivers do, too. Parents of children with asthma may be more than twice as likely to have sleep problems. Inadequate sleep in adults can lead to increased depression, anxiety, and decreased productivity at work.
The following tips can help you and your child get a better night’s sleep, which can help you both be more energetic and productive during the day.
The right medications will help your child’s asthma stay well controlled. Children with well-controlled asthma have fewer nighttime awakenings and sleep terrors compared to children with poorly controlled asthma. Parents and caregivers of children with well-controlled asthma are then able to get more sleep.
Asthma is considered well controlled if your child:
The two main types of inhaled asthma treatments are long-term control medications and quick-relief medications.
Long-term control medications help to prevent asthma symptoms by decreasing inflammation and swelling in the airways. These are meant to be taken consistently, regardless of whether the child’s asthma is more or less active. Long-term control medications include inhaled corticosteroids, leukotriene antagonists, and long-acting bronchodilators.
Your child needs to use their long-term control medication consistently, even if they don’t have any asthma symptoms. If your child is not experiencing symptoms, it means the medication is working well.
Although long-term control medications reduce asthma symptoms, they may not help if your child is having trouble breathing during an asthma attack. Quick-relief medications are often used with long-term control medications to improve asthma symptoms happening at the moment. Make sure you have an asthma action plan that is approved by your medical team for when your child’s asthma flares.
Quick-relief medications (also called rescue medications) work fast to improve symptoms by relaxing the airway muscles. These medications can stop an asthma attack and should be taken at the first sign of worsening asthma symptoms. Be sure to have these medications everywhere your child typically spends time — at school, after-school programs, family’s homes, etc. All inhalers must be taken with the spacer for adequate medication to get into your child’s lungs.
Quick-relief medications include albuterol (sold as Proair and Ventolin) and levalbuterol (Xopenex).
Quick-relief medications only improve symptoms temporarily. Using a quick-relief medication more often can be a sign that your child’s asthma is uncontrolled.
You may not realize it, but children are often exposed to asthma triggers while they sleep. Be sure to speak with your doctor about any contributing illnesses to their asthma flares. Chronic nasal inflammation, sinusitis, reflux, and obstructive sleep apnea can make your child’s asthma worse if it’s not treated well.
Common triggers in a child’s bedroom can include:
To reduce asthma triggers and allergens in your child’s room, you can try the following:
High or low humidity can be an asthma trigger. Most people feel comfortable when the humidity is between 30 percent and 50 percent. Keeping your home’s humidity under 50 percent can reduce dust mite growth as well. Depending on the climate where you live, you may consider using a humidifier or a dehumidifier to make the air easier to breathe.
Raising your child’s head and shoulders while sleeping can fight the effects of gravity that might be contributing to your child’s cough and asthma symptoms at night. Breathing can be more difficult when you lie down because there is increased blood in your lungs and drainage from your nasal passages. Nasal drainage can be worse when your child has allergies or is sick.
Raising your child’s head and shoulders during sleep can also reduce symptoms caused by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD, commonly known as heartburn, causes a burning sensation in the chest when acid from the stomach is pushed up into the esophagus. Research shows that people with asthma, including children, are more likely to have acid reflux than those without asthma. In addition to being uncomfortable, acid reflux can trigger asthma symptoms. In children with asthma and GERD, the use of an antacid medication may reduce nighttime asthma symptoms.
Some parents find their child coughs less when propped up with a few extra pillows, which can help keep airways open. You can raise the head of your child’s bed by placing a foam wedge under the head of the mattress. If your child is under two years old, it is not typically recommended to use any bed positioners, so speak with your doctor before making any changes to their sleep environment.
Healthy bedtime habits can also improve your child’s sleep. These habits include:
Every child is different, and what works for one child may not work for another. You’ll want to experiment with different sleep hygiene practices and find what works best for your child.
It is also important for kids to stay active during the day. In addition to making them tired, physical activity can increase lung function and boost their immune system.
A sleep diary can help you keep track of what works and what doesn’t in your bedtime routine. It is best to keep a sleep diary on paper to avoid using screens at bedtime. In your child’s sleep diary, you should record:
Develop an asthma action plan with your child’s pediatrician. The asthma action plan will tell you what to do when your child’s asthma symptoms get worse. This information should include asthma medications, asthma triggers, and when to contact your doctor or go to the emergency room.
Worsening asthma symptoms can include:
These symptoms can be a sign to give your child their quick-relief medication with their chamber.
Talk to your child’s doctor about the best treatment plan to keep asthma under control. When your child’s asthma is well controlled, it can lead to fewer symptoms and less disruption of sleep. Consistently following an asthma action plan and managing triggers can help keep your child’s asthma under control.
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